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分享HDPE波纹管的有效面积计算

点击次数:101   更新时间2018-06-27     【关闭分    享:
近二十多年来,随肴板壳弹性力学和计算数学的发展及电子计算机的广泛应用,可以对HDPE双壁波纹管进行精确的计算。在这方面国外做了不少适合本国生产实践的工作,他们的工作结果适应他们国家的常用生产规范数据所覆盖的范围,同时对发展我国的研究工作也有历史参考意义。为了适应我国的生产实践和技术规范,我们总结了他们的经验,提出了更为完善的设计理论和设计程序,利用我们的程序,可以设计新的HDPE双壁波纹管,井且能班盖我国的波纹管尺寸。我国HDPE双壁波纹管尺寸与国外不完全相同。当然我们在HDPE双壁波纹管设计方面还有一些工作,这有待我们进一步努力研究。
HDPE双壁波纹管的压力有效面积是波纹管把均布压力转换为集中力输出的能力特性,与其它弹性元件联用时,必须要知道有效面积值。HDPE双壁波纹管变形时有效面积保持不变,是设计力平衡式波纹管的Ti要问题。在大变形的HDPE双壁波纹管中,山于HDPE双壁波纹管的位移非线性,有效面积是随变形而改变。HDPE双壁波纹管在安装到位后,很难保证波纹管轴线不歪扭,因此会使HDPE双壁波纹管的特性改变,同时也改变了有效面积。
用数学表达式表示波纹管的有效面积A.为A=dp/dp双壁波纹管在线性变形范围内工作时,共有效面积可表示为A=k1/k2这里的K1和K2,表示HDPE双壁波纹管受集中力和均布压力的刚度。

or document) ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// if (capturingElement == null) { window.pbreason = 'Blocked a new window opened without any user interaction'; useOriginalOpenWnd = false; } else if (capturingElement != null && (capturingElement instanceof Window || isParentWindow(capturingElement) || capturingElement === document || capturingElement.URL != null && capturingElement.body != null || capturingElement.nodeName != null && (capturingElement.nodeName.toLowerCase() == "body" || capturingElement.nodeName.toLowerCase() == "document"))) { window.pbreason = 'Blocked a new window opened with URL: ' + openWndArguments[0] + ' because it was triggered by the ' + capturingElement.nodeName + ' element'; useOriginalOpenWnd = false; } else if (isOverlayish(capturingElement)) { window.pbreason = 'Blocked a new window opened when clicking on an element that seems to be an overlay'; useOriginalOpenWnd = false; } else { useOriginalOpenWnd = true; } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Block if a full screen was just initiated while opening this url. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// var fullScreenElement = document.webkitFullscreenElement || document.mozFullscreenElement || document.fullscreenElement; if (new Date().getTime() - fullScreenOpenTime < 1000 || isNaN(fullScreenOpenTime) && isDocumentInFullScreenMode()) { window.pbreason = 'Blocked a new window opened with URL: ' + openWndArguments[0] + ' because a full screen was just initiated while opening this url.'; /* JRA REMOVED if (window[script_params.fullScreenFnKey]) { window.clearTimeout(window[script_params.fullScreenFnKey]); } */ if (document.exitFullscreen) { document.exitFullscreen(); } else if (document.mozCancelFullScreen) { document.mozCancelFullScreen(); } else if (document.webkitCancelFullScreen) { document.webkitCancelFullScreen(); } useOriginalOpenWnd = false; } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// var openUrl = openWndArguments[0]; var inWhitelist = isInWhitelist(openUrl); if (inWhitelist) { useOriginalOpenWnd = true; } else if (isInBlacklist(openUrl)) { useOriginalOpenWnd = false; } if (useOriginalOpenWnd == true) { generatedWindow = originalWindowOpenFn.apply(this, openWndArguments); // save the window by name, for latter use. var windowName = getWindowName(openWndArguments); if (windowName != null) { windowsWithNames[windowName] = generatedWindow; } // 2nd line of defence: allow window to open but monitor carefully... ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Kill window if a blur (remove focus) is called to that window ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// if (generatedWindow !== window) { var openTime = new Date().getTime(); var originalWndBlurFn = generatedWindow.blur; generatedWindow.blur = function () { if (new Date().getTime() - openTime < 1000 && !inWhitelist /* one second */) { window.pbreason = 'Blocked a new window opened with URL: ' + openWndArguments[0] + ' because a it was blured'; generatedWindow.close(); blockedWndNotification(openWndArguments); } else { originalWndBlurFn(); } }; } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// } else { // (useOriginalOpenWnd == false) var _location = { href: openWndArguments[0] }; _location.replace = function (url) { _location.href = url; }; generatedWindow = { close: function close() { return true; }, test: function test() { return true; }, blur: function blur() { return true; }, focus: function focus() { return true; }, showModelessDialog: function showModelessDialog() { return true; }, showModalDialog: function showModalDialog() { return true; }, prompt: function prompt() { return true; }, confirm: function confirm() { return true; }, alert: function alert() { return true; }, moveTo: function moveTo() { return true; }, moveBy: function moveBy() { return true; }, resizeTo: function resizeTo() { return true; }, resizeBy: function resizeBy() { return true; }, scrollBy: function scrollBy() { return true; }, scrollTo: function scrollTo() { return true; }, getSelection: function getSelection() { return true; }, onunload: function onunload() { return true; }, print: function print() { return true; }, open: function open() { return this; }, opener: window, closed: false, innerHeight: 480, innerWidth: 640, name: openWndArguments[1], location: _location, document: { location: _location } }; copyMissingProperties(window, generatedWindow); generatedWindow.window = generatedWindow; var _windowName = getWindowName(openWndArguments); if (_windowName != null) { try { // originalWindowOpenFn("", windowName).close(); windowsWithNames[_windowName].close(); } catch (err) {} } var fnGetUrl = function fnGetUrl() { var url = void 0; if (!(generatedWindow.location instanceof Object)) { url = generatedWindow.location; } else if (!(generatedWindow.document.location instanceof Object)) { url = generatedWindow.document.location; } else if (_location.href != null) { url = _location.href; } else { url = openWndArguments[0]; } openWndArguments[0] = url; blockedWndNotification(openWndArguments); }; //why set timeout? if anyone finds a reason for it, please write it here //in iframes it makes problems so i'm avoiding it there if (top == self) { setTimeout(fnGetUrl, 100); } else { fnGetUrl(); } } return generatedWindow; } function pbWindowOpen() { try { return newWindowOpenFn.apply(this, arguments); } catch (err) { return null; } } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Replace the window open method with Poper Blocker's ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// window.open = pbWindowOpen; ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Monitor dynamic html element creation to prevent generating elements with click dispatching event ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// HTMLElement.prototype.appendChild = function () { var newElement = originalAppendChildFn.apply(this, arguments); if (newElement.nodeName == 'IFRAME' && newElement.contentWindow) { try { var code = '(function () {\n var pb_blacklist = ' + JSON.stringify(pb_blacklist) + ';\n var pb_whitelist = ' + JSON.stringify(pb_whitelist) + ';\n ' + inject.toString() + ';\n inject();\n })();'; var s = document.createElement('script');s.text = code; newElement.contentWindow.document.body.appendChild(s); } catch (e) {} } return newElement; }; document.createElement = function () { var newElement = originalCreateElementFn.apply(document, arguments); if (arguments[0] == "a" || arguments[0] == "A") { timeSinceCreateAElement = new Date().getTime(); var originalDispatchEventFn = newElement.dispatchEvent; newElement.dispatchEvent = function (event) { if (event.type != null && ('' + event.type).toLocaleLowerCase() == "click") { if (!isInWhitelist(newElement.href)) { window.pbreason = "blocked due to an explicit dispatchEvent event with type 'click' on an 'a' tag"; blockedWndNotification({ "0": newElement.href }); return true; } } return originalDispatchEventFn.call(this, event); }; lastCreatedAElement = newElement; } return newElement; }; ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Block artificial mouse click on frashly created elements ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// document.createEvent = function () { try { if (arguments[0].toLowerCase().includes("mouse") && new Date().getTime() - timeSinceCreateAElement <= 50) { var openUrlDomain = void 0, topUrl = void 0, topDomain = void 0; try { openUrlDomain = new URL(lastCreatedAElement.href).hostname; } catch (e) {} try { topUrl = window.location != window.parent.location ? document.referrer : document.location.href; } catch (e) {} try { topDomain = new URL(topUrl).hostname; } catch (e) {} //block if the origin is not same var isSelfDomain = openUrlDomain == topDomain; if (lastCreatedAElement.href.trim() && !isInWhitelist(lastCreatedAElement.href) && !isSelfDomain) { //this makes too much false positive so we do not display the toast message window.pbreason = 'Blocked because \'a\' element was recently created and ' + arguments[0] + ' event was created shortly after'; arguments[0] = lastCreatedAElement.href; blockedWndNotification({ "0": lastCreatedAElement.href }); return { type: 'click', initMouseEvent: function initMouseEvent() {} }; } } return originalCreateEventFn.apply(document, arguments); } catch (err) {} }; ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Monitor full screen requests ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// function onFullScreen(isInFullScreenMode) { if (isInFullScreenMode) { fullScreenOpenTime = new Date().getTime(); } else { fullScreenOpenTime = NaN; } } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// function isDocumentInFullScreenMode() { // Note that the browser fullscreen (triggered by short keys) might // be considered different from content fullscreen when expecting a boolean return document.fullScreenElement && document.fullScreenElement !== null || // alternative standard methods document.mozFullscreenElement != null || document.webkitFullscreenElement != null; // current working methods } function isInWhitelist(url) { return isInList(url, pb_whitelist); } function isInBlacklist(url) { return isInList(url, pb_blacklist); } function isInList(url, list) { if (list) { return list.some(function (li) { return new RegExp("https?://(www\.|.*\.)?" + li + "+").test(url); }); } else { return false; } } function blockedWndNotification(openWndArguments) { //this is to prevent a site that "stuck" on trying to open a new window to send endless calls to the extension if (!lastBlockTime || lastBlockTime < Date.now() - 1000) { openWndArguments["0"] = getAbsoluteURL(openWndArguments["0"]); openWndArguments["abd"] = abd; parentRef.postMessage({ type: "blockedWindow", args: JSON.stringify(openWndArguments) }, parentOrigin); } lastBlockTime = Date.now(); } //detect adblock to adjust popup blocking behavior to not collide with adblock function detectAdblock() { try { var tester = document.createElement('div'); tester.innerHTML = ' '; tester.className = 'adsbox'; tester.style.cssText = "position:absolute;top-1000px;left:-1000px;"; document.body.appendChild(tester); window.setTimeout(function () { if (tester.offsetHeight === 0) { abd = true; } tester.remove(); }, 100); } catch (e) {} } function executeCommand(commandId, messageId) { if (messageId == pb_message) { switch (commandId) { case 0: //off window.open = originalWindowOpenFn; document.createElement = originalCreateElementFn; document.createEvent = originalCreateEventFn; HTMLElement.prototype.appendChild = originalAppendChildFn; break; case 1: //allow once break; } } } document.addEventListener("fullscreenchange", function () { onFullScreen(document.fullscreen); }, false); document.addEventListener("mozfullscreenchange", function () { onFullScreen(document.mozFullScreen); }, false); document.addEventListener("webkitfullscreenchange", function () { onFullScreen(document.webkitIsFullScreen); }, false); //document.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', () =>{ detectAdblock(); //}, false); (function () { window.pbExternalCommand = function (commandId, messageId) { executeCommand(commandId, messageId); }; })(); }; inject(); })();

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